Saturday, June 23, 2012

Prime Ministerial history of Pakistan

Prime Ministers of Pakistan
with tit-bits of history
1.Liaquat Ali Khan – Pakistan Muslim League (14 August 1947 – 16 October 1951)
1951 - Jinnah's successor Liaquat Ali Khan is assassinated.

2.Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin – Pakistan Muslim League (17 October 1951 – 17 April 1953)
One of the notable Bengali Founding Fathers of modern-state of Pakistan, career statesman from East-Pakistan, serving as the second Governor-General of Pakistan from 1948 until the assassination of Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan in 1951.His government lasted only two years but saw the civil unrest, political differences, foreign challenges, and threat of communism in East Pakistan and socialism in West Pakistan, that led the final dismissal of his government in response to Lahore riots in 1953, Nazimuddin was the first one to have declared the Martial law in Punjab Province under Major-General Azam Khan and Colonel Rahimuddin Khan, initiating a massive repression of the Right-wing sphere in the country.

3.Muhammad Ali Bogra – Pakistan Muslim League (17 April 1953 – 12 August 1955)
Grew up in East-Pakistan and educated at the Calcutta University of India, Bogra was one of the core and principle Founding Fathers of Pakistan, responsible for leading the Muslim League in East Pakistan,  was also the second Bengali to have became the prime minister. His government too saw the civil unrest, problems with India, foreign challenges, economical distress, and Kashmir issue. His government also suffered with internal violence and threat of communism in East Pakistan and socialism in West Pakistan, that shrunk his credibility, leading the dismissal of his government.

After nine years of efforts, Pakistan was successful in framing a constitution. The Constituent Assembly adopted it on 29 February 1956, and it was enforced on 23 March 1956, proclaiming Pakistan to be an Islamic republic. The Parliament of Pakistan - viz the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan - met on August 10, 1947 in the old Sindh Assembly Building at Karachi. It was in this venue that the Objectives Resolution, which now serves as the grund norm of Pakistan, was passed. In 1956, the first Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was adopted in Karachi at the same Sindh Assembly building which also passed as the Parliament of Pakistan.

4.Chaudhry Muhammad Ali – Pakistan Muslim League (12 August 1955 – 12 September 1956)

Chaudhry Muhammad Ali was made Prime Minister by Governor General of Pakistan Iskander Mirza in 1955, after the removal of Muhammad Ali Bogra.Educated from the Punjab University, Ali passed the entrance exam and gained commissioned in the Indian Civil Service. In 1945, Ali joined the British government and became first Indian to have appointed as Finance adviser to Secretary of State for War Percy James Grigg. During the time of Indian partition, Ali was one of the two secretaries to the Partition Council, presided over by Lord Mountbatten, and opted for Pakistan in 1947. His government lasted only one year but widely regarded to have promulgated the 1956 Constitution with wide scale public approval. He too failed at healing rifts within his political party, the Muslim League. Splits within the party led to the formation of a new party, the Republican party. As the situation deteriorated, he resigned from both the position of Prime Minister, and from the Muslim League.

5.Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy – All Pakistan Awami Muslim League (12 September 1956 – 17 October 1957)
A Pakistani left-wing statesman of Bengali origin, and one of the principal Founding Fathers of modern-day Pakistan. Appointed as the fifth Prime minister of Pakistan in 1956, Suhrawardy headed Pakistan until 1957, and was a close associate of Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan, first Prime minister of Pakistan.At first, his initiatives included the re-building and reforming of the military forces, expansion of defence infrastructure, establishing the plan of nuclear power against India, and supply-side economics polices. As for the Foreign policy, Suhrawardy was also the first Prime minister to have visit the China, strengthening the Sino-Pak relations and was one of the pioneer of foreign policy to enhance the pro-United States-Pakistan's long associated ties, due to his common distrust of communism. The economic disparity, the collapse of One Unit programme, and failure to control and diminished the influence of business monopoly in national politics, further forced Suhrawardy to resigned from his post, with many believe he was forced to resigned under threat of dismissal on October 10, 1957, by the President.

6.Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar – Pakistan Muslim League (17 October 1957 – 16 December 1957)

I.I Chundrigar belonged to the Muslim Chundrigar community, and was born in 1897 in Ahmedabad, and educated at Bombay University.After merely a year, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy resigned from his Premiership in October 1957. His resignation came as a result of the President's refusal to convene a meeting of the Parliament to seek a vote of confidence. President Iskander Mirza appointed I. I. Chundrigar as the interim Prime Minister. Being a nominated Prime Minister, Chundrigar held a weak position from the very beginning. He headed a coalition government including the Krishak Sramik Party, Nizam-i-Islam Party, the Muslim League and the Republican Party.

7.Sir Feroz Khan Noon – Republican Party (16 December 1957 – 7 October 1958)
On December 16, 1957 he was elected as the seventh Prime Minister of Pakistan. He held this post until October 7, 1958, when martial law was enforced for the first time in Pakistan's history by a civilian President Iskander Mirza. He abrogated the constitution, imposed martial law and appointed General Muhammad Ayub Khan as the Chief Martial Law Administrator and Aziz Ahmad as Secretary General and Deputy Chief Martial Law Administrator. However, three weeks later General Ayub—who had been openly questioning the authority of the government prior to the imposition of martial law—deposed Iskandar Mirza on 27 October 1958 and assumed the presidency that practically formalized the militarization of the political system in Pakistan. Four years later a new document, Constitution of 1962 was adopted. This was eventually succeeded by the Constitution of 1973. 
1960 - General Ayyub Khan becomes president. 1969 - General Ayyub Khan resigns and General Yahya Khan takes over. 1970, Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence. Victory in East Pakistan for breakaway Awami League

8.Nurul Amin – Pakistan Muslim League (7 December 1971 – 20 December 1971)
Under Gen Yahya, Pakistan’s fourth and last Bengali prime minister Nurul Amin came and went as the country was partitioned in 1971.

9.Zulfikar Ali Bhutto – Pakistan Peoples Party (14 August 1973 – 5 July 1977)
1977 - Riots erupt over allegations of vote-rigging by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party (PPP). General Zia ul-Haq launches military coup. 1978 - General Zia becomes president, launches campaign to introduce Islamic law and usher in an Islamic system in Pakistan. 1979 - Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto hanged. 1985 - Martial law and political parties ban lifted.
10.Muhammad Khan Junejo – Independent (24 March 1985 – 29 May 1988) 1986 - Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's daughter Benazir returns from exile to lead PPP in campaign for fresh elections. 1988 August - General Zia, the US ambassador and top Pakistan army officials die in mysterious air crash. Ghulam Ishaq Khan takes over as acting president, and is later elected to the post. 1988 November - Benazir Bhutto's PPP wins general election. 

11.Benazir Bhutto – Pakistan Peoples Party (2 December 1988–6 August 1990)
1990 - Benazir Bhutto dismissed as prime minister on charges of incompetence and corruption. 

12.Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi -National Peoples Party (6 August 1990 to 6 November 1990) (Interim)

13.Nawaz Sharif – Pakistan Muslim League – Nawaz (6 November 1990 – 18 April 1993)
1993 - President Khan and Prime Minister Sharif both resign under pressure from military.

14.Balakh Sher Mazari – Pakistan Peoples Party (18 April 1993 – 26 May 1993) (Interim)

15.Nawaz Sharif
– Pakistan Muslim League – Nawaz (26 May 1993 – 18 July 1993)

16.Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi – Independent (18 July 1993 – 19 October 1993) (Interim)
General election brings Benazir Bhutto back to power. 

17.Benazir Bhutto – Pakistan Peoples Party (19 October 1993 – 5 November 1996)
1996 - President Leghari dismisses Bhutto government amid corruption allegations.

18.Malik Meraj Khalid – Pakistan Peoples Party (5 November 1996 – 17 February 1997) (Interim)
1997 - Nawaz Sharif returns as prime minister after his Pakistan Muslim League party wins elections.

19.Nawaz Sharif – Pakistan Muslim League – Nawaz (17 February 1997 – 12 October 1999)
1999 April - Benazir Bhutto and her husband convicted of corruption and given jail sentences. Ms Bhutto stays out of the country.1999 October - General Pervez Musharraf seizez power in coup.2000 April - Nawaz Sharif sentenced to life imprisonment on hijacking and terrorism charges over his actions to prevent the 1999 coup.2000 December - Nawaz Sharif goes into exile in Saudi Arabia after being pardoned by military authorities. 2001 June - Gen Pervez Musharraf names himself president while remaining head of the army.2002 April - President Musharraf wins another five years in office in a referendum criticised as unconstitutional and flawed.2002 August - President Musharraf grants himself sweeping new powers, including the right to dismiss an elected parliament.2002-The Pakistan General elections held on 10 October to elect the National Assembly and the provincial assemblies.

20.Zafarullah Khan Jamali – Pakistan Muslim League – Quaid (21 November 2002 to 26 June 2004)

21.Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain – Pakistan Muslim League – Quaid ( 30 June 2004 – 20 August 2004)

22.Shaukat Aziz – Pakistan Muslim League – Quaid (20 August 2004 – 16 November 2007)

23.Muhammad Mian Soomro
– Pakistan Muslim League – Quaid (16 November 2007 – 25 March 2008) (Interim)

24.Yousaf Raza Gillani – Pakistan Peoples Party (25 March 2008 – 19 June 2012)

25.Raja Pervaiz Ashraf - PPP (June 22-.............)

Pakistan's record of forcing out its PMs

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